Air pollution is an important determinant of population health. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.4% of all deaths and 0.8% of disability- adjusted life-years are the result of particulate air pollution. The short-term health effects of particulate and gaseous air pollutants have also been well documented. The long-term effects of exposure to air pollutants have been documented in large-scale cohort studies. An important component of environmental health risk management is the evaluation of the effect of a particular intervention. 2013 was designated by the European Union “Year of Air”. With this preamble, we chose to organize in Milan on October 19th a fullday seminar on this topic, that is particular relevant for Milan and for those who live in the River Po plain in Italy.