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There are many risk factors associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. Some
risk factors such as family history, ethnicity and age, cannot be changed. Other risk
factors that can be treated or changed include tobacco exposure, high blood pressure,
high cholesterol, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, and unhealthy diets.
Hypertension is the single biggest risk factor for stroke, renal failure and heart attacks.
Uncontrolled and prolonged elevation of BP can lead to a variety of changes in the
myocardial structure, coronary vasculature, and conduction system of the heart. These
changes can lead to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery
disease, various conduction system diseases, and systolic and diastolic myocardium
dysfunction, to complications that manifest clinically as angina or myocardial
infarction, cardiac arrhythmias (especially atrial fibrillation), and congestive heart
failure. Furthermore, diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and
abnormal blood lipid levels increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. The diagnosis
and assessment involves clinical evaluation, including identifying significant risk
factors and specific cardiac investigations such as echocardiogram, measurement of
microalbuminuria, stress testing or coronary imaging. These investigations may be used
to confirm the diagnosis, to identify or exclude associated conditions or precipitating
factors, assist in stratifying risk associated with the disease and to evaluate the efficacy
of treatment. In practice, diagnostic and prognostic assessments are conducted
simultaneously, rather than separately, and many of the investigations used for diagnosis
also offer prognostic information.
The aim of this International Symposium is to update general practitioners and
specialists (cardiologists, internists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, neurologists) on
the most recent advances in the diagnostic approach, prevention and treatment of
the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. During the congress will
be discussed important topics such as atrial fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, sexual
dysfunction, new risk factors, markers and other hot topics. The scientific sessions will
be very interactive, the participants will have the chance to discuss with the experts
interesting case studies related to the presented topics, with the aim to discuss with the
experts the gold standard of treatment of these diseases and to assess the therapeutic
handling of specific diseases, in every day clinical practice.
I am delighted to invite you all to participate in this international event where experts
and prominent speakers from all over the world will give a great scientific contribution
to better understand the different topics.

Prof. Athanasios J. Manolis
President of the Meeting

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Press Release:
Nobel Prize recipient Louis Ignarro

Minuti Menarini Online

Beside the Scientific Edition, Fondazione Menarini edits the publication of the Artistic Edition of "Minuti Menarini" addressed to all Italian doctors who love art



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Fondazione Internazionale Menarini
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Tel. +39 02 55308110 Fax +39 02 55305739 C.F. 94265730484